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The Art of Speaking

Starting from the moment when a child is born, at that time he doesn’t even know what to speak and how to speak, he just knows how to cry and that is speaking too, just in a childish way. Then afterward, he starts to listen to mom, dad, and others in the house and the words take place in his mind slowly and then a time comes when he starts speaking.

The art of speaking is such a blessing and a gift that we cannot thank Allah enough. He is the One who made us capable of listening, learning, and speaking. The amazing phenomenon is that speaking depends on listening, by listening you can speak whatever you hear. In mathematics language, speaking is directly proportional to listening or hearing. A good example is that if a child is born if you put that child in a home, he/she will learn the language that is spoken in the house, whatever the language is. 

It proves that the mind learns by listening and then eventually speaks, this art of speaking starts from the childhood phase. Then when you grow up, you are taught speaking skills through class presentations, preparations for interviews, etc. All these practices are done to teach the art of speaking, and what I mean by all this is ‘What and how to speak’, how to convey your message effectively whether it is a crowd in front of you or if you are on a video conference, whatever the environment is, the purpose is how to speak to make your message more powerful and effective.

The art of speaking to in audience

If we look around the world, we look at different motivational speakers who speak on different motivational and important topics in front of crowds, the question is why are they called and what is the reason they are chosen to speak on different topics? The answer is ‘The art of speaking’. They have this skill to convey the message in a way that people like and prefer. Sometimes you may see a person will be saying something, although the message won’t be a relevant one to discuss they will do it in a way that people will listen with deep attention.

 This all is due to the skill which is the usage of a language in a manner or a way that attracts the audience. You will notice that a shopkeeper or a seller also sometimes talks in a way that makes us feel that the product is genuine and we should take it, that’s because, in business, this skill is very crucial. It doesn’t mean that you have to lie but instead talks so well and effectively that the customer or anyone feels good talking to you.

So the moral of this short chapter of mine is to be the best of yourself in speaking and not just speak, be a good listener too, because remember always, you also learned to speak by listening to someone first.

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Pirate’s Language and their Life

Pirate’s Language and their Life

18 May 2022

 

Pirates

Many of you already know about pirates, the robber’s who travel by water targeting ships for stealing cargo and other valuable goods like (Gold, Silver, and Jewels) being shipped by merchants and also attacking coastal areas and towns. You might be wrong to think all the pirates are evil, daring, and swashbuckling but actually, most of them were ordinary people who had been forced to turn into criminals and do wrong things.

Many pirates abducted children and men for their crew and slavery from places they attacked or lands conquered.

Golden Age of Piracy

“Golden Age of Piracy” lasted roughly from “the 1650s to 1730s”. At that time everyone wanted to grow their borders and conquest new lands, Countries started expanding their colonization and started migrating from multiple nations. At that time piracy started spreading fast crimes on the seas increased, all the pirates started invading each other’s and many families lost their family members.

At that time World was originally divided between Spain and Portugal. In fact, from the coast of South America, across the Caribbean Sea, and all the way to northern Florida was known as the Spanish man. The other countries started getting jealous and got angry that Portugal and Spain were getting all the treasure and gold that was found in the Americas, so they made a plan to attack them and seize these ships which were filled with treasure and gold.

The Sailors that were hired to attack ships, these men were called Privateers, every time privateers invade the lands or seize the ship they always take 3rd part of the loot they get.

During the Golden age of Piracy topmost notorious pirate was known as “Blackbeard”, his real name before Blackbeard was “Edward Thatch” he was known as a Blackbeard because of his long black beard. He joined the Royal Navy at a very young age after his father passed away (Edward Teach Senior) during Queen Anne’s War (1701-1704).

Pirates Language:

The most spoken language widely used by Pirates and privateers was “Maritime Pidgin English”, also Nautical Jargon. A trade Jargon was mostly spoken between sailors on Board vessels and in coastal areas, many of them were from different nations. During that time there was no native speaker because many different cultures and religions were traveling together. Pidgin’s language origin is England and this word came from England, the Pidgin word means Business pidgin is not the native language of any region, religion, or country.

Pidgin’s language is usually born when two different language speakers with no common language try to have a makeshift conversation with each other. So, 3rd dominator language is known as Pidgin.

Summary

The Pirates got famous in history because of the Golden Age of piracy (the 1650s to 1730s), during that time number of pirates were more than 5000 pirates said to be at sea. If we talk about the most terrifying and horrific pirate of all time first name that gone comes its “Blackbeard”. There were lots of other languages during the 17th” to 18th Centuries, but “Pidgin” was a hybrid language an offspring of two languages which were mostly spoken at that time. If you are interested to know more about pirates you should need to watch movies like “Pirates of the Caribbean”, “Peter Pan”, “Blackbeard’s Ghost” Etc.

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Kurdish language and its different dialects.

Kurdish language and its different dialects.

18 May 2022

 

Kurdish Language and its dialects

 

History told us the Kurdish language belongs to the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family, and the development of these languages was between 4,000 to 2,000 years ago.

There are three main Kurdish groups:

 Northern Kurdish

 Central Kurdish 

 Southern Kurdish.

The history of Kurdish, among modern Iranian languages and dialects is not easy to define. There are so many Kurdish dialects that are still imperfectly known, as also many other modern Iranian dialects to this day. So considering the Kurdish language, and Iranian Dialects, in general, have been extended since 1961.

“Kurdish language” “Kurdish” is not an official or state language. On the contrary, there are some dialects that are spoken in a large geographic area like (Kurmanji in turkey, and Sorani in northern Iraq).

There is always a debate, what is the Kurdish language? Which parts it is composed of, and whether there is only one Kurdish language, or maybe more than one. 

Northern Kurdish

Kurmanji is the most common northern Kurdish dialect which is spoken all over Kurdistan of Turkey, Syria, and also in the Soviet Union, only 65% of Kurds speak Kurmanji. Kurdish Kurmanji was banned in Turkey from the 1920s until 1991. That’s the reason why Kurdish Kurmanji was not spoken by many people.  

Central Kurdish Language

 

Sorani is spoken by Kurds in Iraq and Iran, also called the central Kurdish dialect. The pronunciation is different from the spelling, and writing expressions are in the Arabic script.

Only the ¼ Kurds spoke Sorani. Sorani is a well-developed dialect in modern times. For an education system in Sorani, Kurdish was allowed to develop in Iraq.

Southern Kurdish

This dialect is primarily spoken in Iran and Iraq. The Southern Kurdish dialect group encompasses over nine sub-dialects. 

Conclusion

The Kurdish language is an Indo-European language and Indo-Iranian. It has different dialects; Northern Kurdish “Kurmanji”, Central Kurdish “Sorani”, Southern Kurdish, and Zazaki-Gorani. 

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What is body language?

What is body language?

04 April 2022

Body Language

Why do we communicate with others the way we do? In our society, communication has often been interpreted as a transactional exchange between two people. Communication is not based on words, but rather on body language. The key to effective communication is how you make an impression; how your gestures communicate your feelings, thoughts, and beliefs. This article explores the role of body language in verbal and nonverbal communication. It examines how people communicate using body language and why this type of communication is crucial for successful business relationships.

Body Language

What is communication, anyway? There seems to be no simple answer to this question, but we need to start with basic definitions. According to Merriam Webster Dictionary, communication is “the process of conveying and transmitting information from sources of knowledge and experience to others, whether at face value or as a matter of statecraft or custom.” (Merriam Webster Online)

A brief overview of this definition shows that you have to transfer knowledge, ideas, and emotions from one party to the other party, either verbally or nonverbally. Of course, this definition does not refer to any particular kind of interaction; communication is more likely to occur between two individuals. However, I would argue that the first steward’s communication is the exchange of verbal cues that inform the recipient of what is happening.

The most obvious examples are eye contact, facial expression, touch, and body language. Let’s discuss each one in detail.

1: Facial expressions

Facial Expression Shows Your Interest in Others’ Opinions the importance of facial expression in communication cannot be underestimated. Research shows that eye contact often prompts the giver into a conversation that they did not intend to begin or have already anticipated. By creating eye contact with the recipient, you immediately instill a mutual interest, which leads to further discussion.

2: Eye contact

Eye Contact Communicates Approval, Respect, Affirmation, and Empathy from Your Guests to Yourself To your customers the purpose of eye contact is to create an immediate psychological connection with the recipient. This connection allows the recipient to open up emotionally with you so that you are comfortable in a personal situation like that you choose to interact with them. Even though eye contact can create trust among you and the beneficiary of your communication, it can also cause resentment among the recipient if the recipient believes that the emotional connection created between you and the recipient is unwanted (e.g., if the recipient suspects that “a stranger” had an emotional connection with them that you did not). Therefore, by creating a psychological response from the recipient to receive your communication, you establish a bond and establish trust that goes beyond just being a simple friend.

3: Body movement and posture

Your body movement and posture include aspects such as sitting, walking, standing, bearing, and even movements. Body language and gestures play an important part in any individual’s professional as well as personal life. Every professional field or social context demands some kind of communication in a very different way. Like we can’t sit in the office as we used to sit in our houses. We can’t make laugh as we do with our friends.

4: Touch

Touching another individual’s arm also sends a strong signal of approval by reinforcing the fact that you trust them and want them in your life. If a receiver receives attention and respect, then they will respond more readily and have greater confidence in you and your abilities.

5: Voice

It’s not just what you say, it’s how you say it. While you are speaking other people read your voice and listen to your words. They pay attention to your timing and pace, how loud you speak, your tone and inflection, and the sounds that convey understanding. Our voices contain confidence, happiness, and anger that clearly show the situations, we are going through.

6: Physical contact

Physical contact (such as kissing, hugging, and cuddling) often leaves a lasting impact on the recipient’s confidence or self-esteem, especially if that contact includes touching their genitals. Although there are many theories as to why touching someone’s body provides this effect, studies show that the brain knows to associate the touch with love when it perceives that the recipient is safe and secure in your presence (e.g., giving someone a hug, a kiss, a pat on the back, etc.).

Our body language is as important as our words. Because both have equal importance in the way they are used. Our words expressed our thoughts and our body language supports our thoughts and reflects, what we are trying to say to the other person. Body language plays a very important role in the lives of people that can’t speak, their body is the only way to speak with others. Their eyes can speak, faces can speak, and even their posture and gestures. 

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English and its dialects

English and its dialects

English has quickly grown into an international language of communication and business. As a result of the spread of culture and the subsequent growth of the British Empire, English has become a bridge used to communicate with people all around the world.

Like many other languages, the correct pronunciation of English depends largely on the area in which it is spoken, but an accent is how people pronounce words while a dialect includes not only pronunciation but grammar and vocabulary. This alteration in vocabulary and grammar of the language is referred to as a dialect in that particular area.

A wide range of vernacular languages stems from a blend of mixed language comprehension combined with local personal delivery. This has resulted in hundreds of changing dialects around the world, introducing a broader global understanding and delivery of the English language.

Some of the most widely spoken English languages include those from Australia, The US, the UK, Jamaica, India, Canada, and beyond. The vernacular in those regions makes the language delivery itself by combining cultural phrases with certain words in a language that cannot be distinguished from the outside world these dialects often change in different regions of the region to transform into vernacular languages.

British English

British English is a common vernacular or English language used in Great Britain, different from that used elsewhere. There is little regional variation in official English, written in the United Kingdom. English is a West Germanic language derived from the Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain by German immigrants from various parts of what is now northwestern Germany and the north of the Netherlands.

The local population of the period was much more common than the everyday Brittonic — a variety of continental Celtic, which was influenced by the Roman occupation.

American English

 

American English sometimes called U.S English or United States English is a collection of English language variants that originated in the United States and is widely accepted in Canada. English is the most widely spoken language in The Unites States and is a common language used by the coalition government, which is considered a national language because of its widespread use. English has official status by 32 out of 50 state governments.

Australian English

Australian English is a major variant of the English language throughout Australia. Although English has no official position in the constitution, Australian English is the national language and is the official language of the country as it is the first language of the majority of the population.

Canadian English

Canadian English is a collection of English language variants of Canadian origin. According to the 2011 census, English was the first language of Canada’s estimated 19 million people, 57% of the population, and the rest of the population was native Canadian French speakers 22% of the population.

Canadian English is the product of waves lasting more than two centuries.

Indian English

English replaced Persian as the official language of the East India Company in 1835 (India at that time and today, is one of the world’s linguistically diverse regions).

Lord Macaulay played a key role in introducing English and western concepts to Indian education. He supported the Persian translation into English as the official language.

The idea of this language among many Indians has shifted from colonialism to economic development, and English continues to be the official language of India, despite having an Indian twist, commonly known as Indian English.

Summary

Although it all applies to speech only, not to English writing.

Language is diverse, and it is a manifestation of diversity. It is an individual, with a manifestation of personality and identity. Agreements play a role in communications, which are also a major part of ownership, but are limited, and easy to read.

Think of the different dialects of English as helpers, not as barriers.

 
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Statements of Truth, Translations and witnesses in other languages

Statements of Truth, Translations and witnesses in other languages

The requirements of the CPR that deal with the signing of statements of truth when the witness is unable to read the document are clear and easy to follow, but it can be easy to fail to get it right; this is often problematic and it can be something to be relied upon in a successful application to strike out a claim.

1. CPR 22 3A.1 states:

“Where a document containing a statement of truth is to be signed by a person who is unable to read or sign the document, it must contain a certificate made by an authorized person.”

An authorized person is specified by CPR 22 3A.2 to be a person able to administer oaths and take affidavits, but they do not need to be independent of the parties or their representatives.

2. CPR 22 3A.4 directs that the form of the certificate which must be used appears in Annex 1 to the Practice Direction:

“I certify that I [name and address of authorized person] have read over the contents of this document and the declaration of truth to the person signing the document [if there are exhibits, add ‘and explained the nature and effect of the exhibits referred to in it’] who appeared to understand (a) the document and approved its content as accurate and (b) the declaration of truth and the consequences of making a false declaration, and made his mark in my presence.”

3. The consequences of failing to verify a document with a statement of truth are set out in CPR 22 4. A statement of the case remains effective unless it is struck out, but a party may not rely on the contents of a statement of the case as evidence until it has been verified by a statement of truth. 4.2 states that any party can apply to the court for an unless order specifying that the statement of the case must be verified by the service of a statement of truth, failing which the statement of the case will be struck out. 4.3 specifies that the usual order for the costs of an application for an unless order will be that the party who failed to verify will pay the costs.

4. Many practitioners draft witness evidence in English and, if the witness requires the assistance of a translator, add a certificate in the form of Annex 1 to CPR 22 to the witness statement. However, CPR 32.4(1) specifies that “a witness statement is a written statement signed by a person which contains the evidence which that person would be allowed to give orally.” When a witness will not give their evidence orally in English, the statement should be in the language the witness will use; that statement should then be translated into English.

This article is provided free of charge for information purposes only; it does not constitute legal advice and should not be relied on as such. No responsibility for the accuracy and/or correctness of the information and commentary set out in the article, or for any consequences of relying on it, is assumed or accepted by any member of Chambers or by Chambers as a whole.

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/statements-truth-translations-witnesses-other-nauman-rashid-khan

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